Dr Philippe Martin

Associate Professor  (Ph.D + HDR; "MCF H.C.")
    with over 20 years of experience in ontologies and knowledge representation, sharing and retrieval
    e.g. with the Semantic Web and other knowledge representation based cooperation systems.

French and Australian.
E-mail: phmartin3 .REMOVE THIS TEXT. @ .AND_THIS_TEXT_TOO. gmail.com
          Home page: www.phmartin.info

Table of content     (click here if you want a PDF version for printing purposes)
1.  Short CV
2.  Teaching (currently in this separate Web page in French)
3.  Research publications

1.  Short CV

1.1.  Some themes of my research so far

Design of methodologies, ontologies, languages, techniques and software helping people to
search, filter, compare, organize, represent, share and evaluate arbitrarily precise/complex knowledge, e.g.,

1.2. Post-doctoral Professional Experience (over 18 years): research & development (R&D), project management, supervision, teaching

Sept. 2009 - 
Associate Professor ("MCF H.C." since Sept. 2017), Uni. of La Réunion (UR) + LIM (I.T.&Math UR Lab.)
(since September 2009: teaching of 14 kinds of courses; classroom time: 195 to 225 hours per year)
  • From September 2019: member of the I.T. department of the Faculty of Sciences and Technology;
    elected representative of the LIM at
    - the OSU-R, La Réunion OSU branch of The observatories of the sciences of the Universe (OSUs)
    - and also, since March 2022, at the Doctoral School council of the U.R.
  • Before September 2019: member of the ESIROI engineer school.
    September 2016-2019: elected member of the ESIROI "school council".
    September 2013-2016, head of the I.T. department of the ESIROI engineer school.
    December 2012 - June 2017: supervision of a PhD (successfully defended on June 12th, 2017).
    September 2012-2016: teaching convenor of the last year of the I.T. department.
    August 2012-2014: teaching convenor of the last 2 years at this department.
    February to June 2012: elected member of the scientific committee of the U.R.
    End of 2009: "Habilitation to Direct/supervise Research" (HDR) thesis (240 pages) and diploma.
March 2008 - 
August 2009
Project leader at Eurecom (French research institute in telecommunication systems).
Study of needs and techniques for information retrieval and data protection
    in RFID information systems and networks (and the "internet of things").
Application to the "PACA-ID Supply Chain" project in collaboration with 7 industrial
    partners (IBM, France Telecom, Carrefour, ...).
2005 - 2007 Australian Senior Lecturer (~ U.S. Associate Professor) at the School of ICT of Griffith Uni.
Convenor+lecturer of three courses: Internet Programming 2,  Workflow Management
    (online course) and Programming with Procedural Languages (online, then face-to-face);
July-December 2006: research on "Cooperatively updated knowledge bases for
    e-learning and research" supported by a Griffith E-Learning Fellowship
    of 26,000 AUD;  convenor of IP2 and co-convenor of Programming 2.
    Other tasks:  1) supervision of a Master student working full time on the import-export functions
                          of WebKB-2 (see below) from/to various knowledge representation languages;
                     2) involvement in the first pilot project of the Text Outline Project (which the co-founder
                         of Wikipedia launched to organize ideas from philosophy books) and
                         beginning of an alternative pilot project;
                     3) co-supervision of Java projects.
Co-supervision of 2 PhD thesis: 1) "Accessing knowledge using ontologies",
    2) "Belief function reasoning to decision making under incomplete information".
Invited lectures at the University of Hawaii, Hawaii Pacific University,
    Xerox Research Center Europe and DERI Galway.
2004 R&D at Biocenturion Systems Pty Ltd: prototyping in PHP of an
    hospital database accessible by patients via mobile phones.
May 12th: the Multi-Source Ontology (MSO) that WebKB-2 proposes to its users and
    permits them to search and extend is voted "starter material" for the
    Standard Upper Ontology (SUO) by the IEEE P1600.1 SUO working group.
July-August: teaching and inter-connection of workflow management tools for the
    on-line course on Workflow Management provided by Griffith University.
October-Decembre: Visiting Professor at the Laboratory for Applied Ontology (LOA)
    (Trento, Italy). Beginning of an ontology of knowledge management tools which is
    intended as a seed for a formally organized state of the art in "knowledge engineering".
2001 - 2003 Senior Research Scientist and leader of the WebKB-2 project
    at the Australian's Distributed Systems Technology Center (the DSTC was the
    W3C's Australian Office but closed in 2006).
Design and development of WebKB-2 (about 50,000 lines of C++/HTML/Javascript,
    documentation and re-used libraries not included), the only current knowledge base Web server
    enabling people to store and tightly interconnect their knowledge into a unique
    large consistent knowledge base without having to agree on terminology or beliefs.
Winner of the 2001 Asia-Pacific Oracle Queensland IT&T Awards for Excellence
    in the Research and Development category.
Participation to the CGIF&KIF sub-committees of the ISO/IEC JTC1 SC32
    and reviews for the Web Intelligence Consortium.
May-June 2003: work for a DSTC proposal to the Object Management Group (OMG) in
    answer to its Ontology Definition Metamodel RFP - the four proposals received by
    the OMG have now been merged.
1998 - 2000 Research Scientist at the School of Information Technology, Griffith University.
Completion of the development of WebKB-1 (over 50,000 lines of C++/HTML/Javascript,
    documentation and re-used libraries not included), a knowledge base server enabling the
    storage of knowledge in Web documents and its use for indexing and then
    retrieving any part of these documents.
Finalist of the 1999 Asia-Pacific Oracle Queensland IT&T Awards for Excellence
    in the Intelligent Technologies category.
October 1999: design and teaching of a course on Web-scripting languages (as part
    of Griffith Uni.'s "Emerging Technologies" courses).
April-June 2000: visiting researcher at the INRIA (French National Institute for
    Research in Computer Science and Control) in the ACACIA project, and
    design of conventions and ontologies for knowledge sharing in RDF.
1997 Postdoc at the Dept. of Computer Sciences of the University of Adelaide, Australia.
Beginning of the design and development of WebKB-1, early "major Semantic Web tool".
Research funded by the Defense Science and Technology Organization (DSTO).
Member of the ICCS review committee from 1997 to nowadays.

1.3. Ph.D., Pre-doctoral Professional Experience (~ 2 years) and Education

1993 - 1996     Ph.D. in Software Engineering, on Knowledge Acquisition and Information Retrieval
using Conceptual Graphs and Structured Documents
, in the INRIA's ACACIA project.
Design and development of CGKAT (over 10,000 lines of C++ and models of data/presentation,
    documentation and re-used libraries not included), a knowledge acquisition tool and
    precision-oriented information retrieval tool.
January-March 1993: research on knowledge extraction from regulatory texts at the
    Australian national research center CSIRO, Division of Information Technology.
1991 - 1992 Engineer/M.Sc. student in Information Technology (Software Engineering) at the
    Ecole Supérieure en Sciences Informatiques (now part of the
    Ecole Polytechnique of the University of Nice - Sophia Antipolis).
M.Sc. thesis on Explanations and the KADS Knowledge Acquisition Methodology.
Summer 1991: design of an object-oriented drawing editor for TRACE Pty Ltd.
June 1992: degree of Engineer and D.E.A. (the French diploma necessary to begin a PhD).
Summer 1992: design of a knowledge graph editor in LeLisp (4000 lines) and Aida+Masai.
1990 Computer scientist staff member of the "Conseil Régional" of Marseille, working with
    OMI Pty Ltd on the management in SQL and C of subvention allocation tasks.
1988 - 1989 Student in Hardware and Software Engineering at the "Institut Supérieur d'Automatique
    et de Robotique" (ISAR; 3rd and 4th year of university studies; this school then soon
    became ESISAR – "Ecole Supérieure d'Ingénieurs en Systèmes Industriels Avancés" –
    an engineer school part of the "Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble").
Summer 1988: extension of a "minitel" server for LEM informatique Pty Ltd.
Summer 1989: re-engineering of a Petri Net software for CJB Automation Pty Ltd.
1986 - 1987 Student in Software Engineering at the "Institut Universitaire de Technologie" of
    Aix en Provence (1st and 2nd year of university studies).
Summer 1986: internship in data reporting using Lotus + Basic at Thomson-CSF Pty Ltd.

1.4.  Skills

Languages French (1st language), English (fluent;  TOEFL;  IELTS;  working in Australia from 1997 to 2007),
Spanish (4 years in high school), Italian (beginner; 2004), German (beginner; 2007)

Computer skills

Mastered languagesC/C++, Javascript+HTML+CSS+AJAX, Lex+Yacc/Bison, Lisp, PHP, SQL
Other known languages Java, Prolog, Smalltalk, SML, Perl, Ada, VBscript, Fortran, Cobol
Mastered DBMSs FastDB / Gigabase (OODBMS), PostgreSQL, MySQL, Microsoft Access
Knowledge modeling Methodologies: KADS, KOD, Ontoclean
Tools: WebKB, CGKAT, Ontolingua, Ontausaurus, Protégé, Jena, Sesame
Notations: CGLF, CGIF, KIF, KM, RDF+OWL, N3, micro-formats, UML, Z
   and those I designed to solve the problems of other notations
Structured document editor   Thot (and, its Web-oriented version, Amaya, the W3C browser)
Graphical libraries   Aida+Masai
Operating systems Expert in Unix (Linux, Solaris) and Unix tools (script languages,
    development tools, Apache Web server, etc.); Windows, VMS, MacOs

3.  Publications

To access a publication, click on its "author" header in the list below.
For a chronologically-sorted list of refereed publications, click here.
For an overview of my main technical ideas, see the articles prefixed by a star ('*') in the list below.
In the references of conference/workshop articles below, the normal font is used only for the articles
which (in my view) best describe the results of my research: a 9 point font is used for the other articles.

3.1.  Refereed journal articles with international selection committee

  1. Martin Ph.A. and Tanzi T.J. (2023). General Knowledge Representation And Sharing, with Illustrations In Risk/Emergency Management. Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050), Volume 15, Issue 14 (July 2, 2023; DOI: 10.3390/su151410803) and Special Issue "Disaster Risk Reduction: In Support of the Sendai Framework and Improved Societal Well-being".

    Notes. Impact Factor: 3.9; CiteScore (Scopus): 5.8; full open access; no Article Processing Charge (APC): this interdisciplinary special issue was organised by the Standing Committee on Disaster Risk Reduction of the International Science Council (ISC) GeoUnions and members of the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction as a result of their Seventh Session of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (GP2022). One of their major focus is the "building of risk knowledge", hence of techniques for organizing, sharing and exploiting this knowledge; these techniques are the focus of this article. This article is a strong extension of an earlier version in Springer's selected papers of ITDRR 2020, 5th international conference on "Information Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction".
    Summary. Most researchers in Knowledge Representation & Sharing (KR and KS) currently focus on what this article defines as "restricted KS", where knowledge providers and consumers can or have to discuss for solving knowledge ambiguities and other KR problems. The first part of this article highlights the usefulness of "general KS" and, for supporting hem, provides a panorama of complementary techniques. These techniques collectively answer research questions about how to support Web users in the collaborative building of KR bases. The second part of this article uses the risk/emergency management domain to illustrate how complementary kinds of knowledge can be represented for general KS.

  2. Martin Ph. (2011a). Collaborative knowledge sharing and editing. International Journal on Computer Science and Information Systems (IJCSIS; ISSN: 1646-3692; two issues per year; about 5 to 13 articles per issue; acceptance rate: 15%), Volume 6, Issue 1, pp. 14-29 (12 pages), 2011.

  3. Martin Ph. (2009a). Managing Knowledge to Enhance Learning. International Journal of Knowledge Management & E-Learning (ISSN 2073-7904; 4 issues per year; indexed by Elsevier SCOPUS), 2nd issue of 2009, pp. 103-119.

  4. Niwattanakul S., Martin Ph., Eboueya M. & Khaimook K. (2007a). Learning Object Mediation System based on an Ontology Model. International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management (IJCIM; ISSN 0858-7027), Volume 15, SP3, pp. 28.1-28.6, Sept.-Dec. 2007.

  5. Martin Ph. & Eboueya M. (2007). Sharing and Comparing Information about Knowledge Engineering. "World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society" Transactions on Information Science and Applications, (ISSN 1790-0832), Issue 5, Volume 4, pp. 1089-1096, May 2007.

  6. Martin Ph. & Eklund P. (2000a). Knowledge Retrieval and the Word Wide Web. IEEE Intelligent Systems (and their applications), Volume 15, No 3, pp. 18-25, May-June 2000.
    (Impact Factor: 3.144; cited 166 times, according to Google Scholar in 2020)

  7. * Martin Ph. & Eklund P. (1999b). Embedding Knowledge in Web Documents. Computer Networks: The International Journal of Computer and Telecommunications Networking, Volume 31, Issue 11-16, pp. 1403-1419, May 17, 1999.

    Note. Impact Factor: 1.69; cited 157 times, according to Google Scholar in 2020.
    Summary. This article shows the interest of high-level, general and intuitive knowledge representation languages for indexing the content of Web documents and representing knowledge. This article compares the use of such languages with the use of micro-formats, languages with low-level models, or XML-based notations via graphical interfaces. It is significant because it summarizes some languages and features of WebKB-1 that current Semantic Web tools have not yet been replicated.

3.2.  Refereed book chapters

  (not "invited" book chapters)
  1. Bénard J. & Martin Ph. (2015)Improving General Knowledge Sharing via an Ontology of Knowledge Representation Language Ontologies. Chapter 23 (pp. 364-387: 24 pages) of CCIS 553: book from the Springer-Verlag Lectures Notes series "Communications in Computer and Information Science" (CCIS). Book title: "Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management".
    This book chapter is an extension of our "KEOD+KDIR 2014 best paper award" article (12 pages) listed below (selection rate: 12,9% -- 37 papers out of 287 submissions).
  2. Martin Ph. & Eboueya M. (2008). For the ultimate accessibility and re-usability. Chapter XXIX (14 pages) of the Handbook of Research on Learning Design and Learning Objects: Issues, Applications and Technologies ( ISBN: 978-1-59904-861-1;  pp. 589-606), July 14, 2008.

    Summary. This article summarizes the approach and techniques used in WebKB-2 to help knowledge sharing and retrieval and argues on (i) the advantages for the medium and long term to use this approach, and (ii) the possibility for this approach to be really used by researchers, lecturers and students for collaboration or learning purposes. This article is significant because it is a recent and not too technical summary and analysis of the approach and techniques used in WebKB-2.

  3. Martin Ph. (2003a). Knowledge Representation, Sharing and Retrieval on the Web. Chapter 12 (35 pages) of a book titled "Web Intelligence" (Springer;  editors: N. Zhong, J. Liu, Y. Yao;  ISBN 3-540-44384-3;  pp. 263-297), January 2003.

3.3.  Refereed French journal articles

  1. Martin Ph. & Jo J. (2018). Contraintes prescriptives compatibles avec OWL2-ER pour évaluer la complétude d'ontologies
    [associated extension and companion Web article: Relations-between-classes based Constraints and Constraint-based Ontology-Completenesses].
    Revue des Nouvelles Technologies de l'Information, vol. RNTI-E-34, pp. 23–34, proceedings of EGC 2018, 18ème conférence internationale sur l'Extraction et la Gestion de Connaissances (international conference on knowledge acquisition), Paris, France, January 22-26, 2018  (selection rate for such "long articles": 25%).

3.4.  Refereed international conference articles

  1. Martin Ph.A. (2023). Incremental Integration of Fragmented Knowledge Via a Shared Knowledge Base Edition Protocol: Basic Rules and Genericity wrt. Inference Engines. Proceedings of ICKG 2023, IEEE International Conference on Knowledge Graph (pp. 126-133 ; https://doi.org/10.1109/ICKG59574.2023.00021 ; ISBN: 979-8-3503-0709-2 ; IEEE Xplore), Shanghai, China, December 1-2, 2023.

  2. Martin Ph. and Tanzi T.J. (2021). General Knowledge Representation And Sharing For Disaster Management. Proceedings of ITDRR 2020 (Springer IFIP AICT 622, pp. 116-131, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-81469-4_10), 5th IFIP Conference on Information Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction, Sofia, Bulgaria, December 3-4th 2020, online July 31, 2021.

  3. Martin Ph., Corby O. & Faron Zucker C. (2019). Ontology Design Rules Based On Comparability Via Certain Relations. Proceedings of SEMANTiCS 2019 (LNCS 11702, pp. 198-214: 17 pages; DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-33220-4_15; hal-02279726), 15th International Conference on Semantic Systems, Karlsruhe, Germany, September 9-12, 2019.

  4. Martin Ph. (2018). Evaluating Ontology Completeness via SPARQL and Relations-between-classes based Constraints. Proceedings of IEEE QUATIC 2018 (pp. 255–263), 11th International Conference on the Quality of Information and Communications Technology, Coimbra, Portugal, September 4-7, 2018.

  5. Martin Ph. & Bénard J. (2017b). Creating and Using various Knowledge Representation Models and Notations. Proceedings of ECKM 2017 (pp. 624-631), 18th European Conference on Knowledge Management, Barcelona, Spain, September 7-8, 2017.

  6. Martin Ph. & Bénard J. (2017a). Categorizing or Generating Relation Types and Organizing Ontology Design Patterns. Proceedings of KAM'17 (in IEEE Xplore and FedCSIS'17 proceedings, pp. 1109-1117; DOI: 10.15439/2017F146), 23rd IEEE conference on Knowledge Acquisition and Management, Prague, Czech Republic, September 3-6, 2017.

  7. Martin Ph. & Bénard J. (2016b). Top-level Ideas about Importing, Translating and Exporting Knowledge via an Ontology of Representation Languages. ACM proceedings of SEMANTiCS 2016 (doi: 10.1145/2993318.2993324; pp. 89-92), Leipzig, Germany, September 12-17, 2016.

  8. Martin Ph. & Bénard J. (2016a). Deriving Binary Relation Types From Concept Types. Supplementary proceedings of ICCS 2016 (pp. 9-12), 22nd International Conference on Conceptual Structures, Annecy, France, July 5-7, 2016.

  9. * Martin Ph. & Bénard J. (2014). An Ontology for Specifying and Parsing Knowledge Representation Structures and Notations. Proceedings of KEOD 2014 (pp. 96-107, ISBN: 978-989-758-049-9), 6th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Development (the Website lists IEEE, OMG and ACM as institutional partners of this conference), Rome, Italy, October 21-24, 2014.

    Selected for the "KDIR 2014 best paper award". KEOD and KDIR (International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Information Retrieval) are joint conferences. Selection rate of "Full papers" at KEOD 2014: 18% (78 submissions).

  10. * Martin Ph. (2012b). For a Semantic Web based Peer-reviewing and Publication of Research Results. Proceedings of KGCM 2012 (pp. 23-28), 6th International Conference on Knowledge Generation, Communication and Management, Florida, USA, July 17-20, 2012. 

  11. * Martin Ph. (2012a). Organizing Linked Data Quality Related Methods. Proceedings of IKE 2012 (pp. 376-382; ISBN: 1-60132-222-4), International Conference on Information and Knowledge Engineering, Nevada, USA, July 16-19, 2012.

  12. Martin Ph. (2011b). Some Knowledge Normalization Methods. Proceedings of Informatics 2011, Rome, Italy, July 20-22, 2011.

  13. Martin Ph., Conruyt N. & Grosser D. (2010). Learning, Identifying, Sharing. Proceedings of Bioidentify 2010 "Tools for Identifying Biodiversity: Progress and Problems" (pp. 65-70;  editors: Nimis P.L., Vignes Lebbe R.;  ISBN: 978-88-8303-295-0 EUT), Paris, September 20-22, 2010.

  14. Martin Ph. (2010d). Collaborative Ontology Modelling. Proceedings of ICCP 2010 (pp. 59-66: 8 pages; ISBN: 978-1-4244-8228-3), IEEE 6th International Conference on Intelligent Computer Communication and Processing, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 26-28, 2010.

  15. Martin Ph. (2010c). Collaborative ontology sharing and editing. Proceedings of Informatics 2010 (pp. 11-18; ISBN: 978-972-8939-19-9; acceptance rate in 2010: 14%), Freiburg, Germany, July 26-31, 2010.

  16. Niwattanakul S. Eboueya M. & Martin Ph. (2009). DOCINER: A Document Indexation Tool for Learning Object. Proceedings of NCM 2009 (pp. 859-863; ISBN: 978-0-7695-3769-6), 5th IEEE International Conference on Networked Computing and Advanced Information Management (Joint Conference on INC, IMS and IDC),
    Seoul, Korea, August 25-27, 2009.

  17. Flater D., Martin Ph. & Crane M. (2009). Rendering UML Activity Diagrams as Human-Readable Text. Proceedings of IKE 2009 (pp. 207-213; ISSN: 1-60132-116-3), international conference on Information and Knowledge Engineering, Nevada, USA, July 13-16, 2009.

  18. Martin Ph. (2008). Use of Semantic Networks as Learning Material and Evaluation of the Approach by Students. Proceedings of OLDE 2008 (ISSN 1307-6884, pp. 429-438), International Conference on Open Learning and Distance Education, Vienna, Austria, August 13-15, 2008.

  19. Martin Ph. (2008a). Semantic Networks to Support Learning. Supplementary proceedings of ICCS 2008 (ISSN 1613-0073; pp. 115-130), 16th International Conference on Conceptual Structures, Toulouse, France, July 7-11, 2008.

  20. Niwattanakul S., Martin Ph., Eboueya M. & Khaimook K. (2007b). Ontology Mapping based on Similarity Measure and Fuzzy Logic. Proceedings of E-learn 2007 (pp. 6383-6387), AACE's Conference on E-learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, & Higher Education, Quebec City, Canada, October 15-19, 2007.

  21. Martin Ph., Jo J. & Jones V. (2007). Cooperatively updated knowledge bases as an optimal medium to learn, publish, evaluate and collaborate. Proceedings B of ICUT 2007 (1st International Conference of Ubiquitous Information Technology; pp. 875-885), , Dubai, February 12-14, 2007.

  22. Jones V, Jo J. & Martin Ph. (2007). Future Schools and How Technology can be used to support Millennial and Generation-Z Students. Proceedings B of ICUT 2007 (1st International Conference of Ubiquitous Information Technology; pp. 886-891), Dubai, February 12-14, 2007.
    (cited 111 times, according to Google Scholar in 2022)

  23. Martin Ph. & Eboueya M. (2007a). Toward a Cooperatively Built Ontology of Knowledge Engineering. Proceedings of CEA 2007 (Computer Engineering and Applications), Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, January 17-19, 2007.

  24. Martin Ph., Eboueya M., Blumenstein M. & Deer P. (2006). A Network of Semantically Structured Wikipedia to Bind Information. Proceedings of E-learn 2006 (pp. 1694-1702), AACE's Conference on E-learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, & Higher Education, Honolulu, Hawaii, October 13-17, 2006.

  25. Martin Ph., Eboueya M., Jo J. & Uden L. (2006). Between too informal and too formal. Proceedings of KMO 2006, International Conference on Knowledge Management in Organizations (UM FERI; editors: M. Hericko, A. ZivKovic; pp. 38-47; ISBN: 86-435-0780-6), Maribor, Slovenia, June 13-14, 2006. 

  26. Eboueya M., Lillis D., Jo J., Cranitch G. & Martin Ph. (2006). Mobile Active Participative Learning Environments for the 21st Century Classroom: The MAPLE Project. Proceedings of the 2nd EUI-Net conference on "European Models of Synergy between Teaching and Research in Higher Education" (pp. 155-158; EUI-Net is the International Excellence Reserve's European University-Industry Network), Tallinn, Estonia, May 3-6, 2006.

  27. * Martin Ph., Blumenstein M. & Deer P. (2005). Toward cooperatively-built knowledge repositories. Proceedings of ICCS 2005, 13th International Conference on Conceptual Structures (Springer, LNAI 3596, pp. 411-424), Kassel, Germany, July 18-22, 2005.
    At this conference, I also organized the "Semi-formal Summaries" workshop and gave a talk at the CG Tools workshop.
    Summary. This article presents various original elements needed to support the cooperative building of formal/semi-formal knowledge repositories, such as (i) "structured discussions", with a template algorithm to assign values to contributions and credits to contributors, (ii) ontological elements to guide and normalize the construction of knowledge repositories about knowledge management tools, and (iii) an approach to permit a scalable display of object comparisons. This article is significant because it is a technical summary of various techniques that I later refined.

  28. * Martin Ph. (2003). Correction and Extension of WordNet 1.7. Proceedings of ICCS 2003, 11th International Conference on Conceptual Structures (Springer, LNAI 2746, pp. 160-173), Dresden, Germany, July 21-25, 2003.
    Summary. This article presents my transformation of the noun-related part of WordNet into a genuine "lexical ontology" with short intuitive identifiers - and its loss-less integration with various top-level ontologies - to support knowledge representation, sharing and retrieval within a knowledge base or on the Web. This article is significant because it provides guidelines for creating ontologies usable for "general" knowledge representation and highlights how difficult this task remains.

  29. * Martin Ph. (2002). Knowledge representation in CGLF, CGIF, KIF, Frame-CG and Formalized-English. Proceedings of ICCS 2002, 10th International Conference on Conceptual Structures (Springer, LNAI 2393, pp. 77-91), Borovets, Bulgaria, July 15-19, 2002. (cited 82 times, according to Google Scholar in 2020)

  30. Martin Ph. & Eklund P. (2002). Manageable Approaches to the Semantic Web. "Practice & Experience" alternate track of WWW 2002, 11th International World Wide Web Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, May 7-11, 2002.

  31. * Martin Ph. & Eklund P. (2001). Large-scale cooperatively-built heterogeneous KBs. Proceedings of ICCS 2001, 9th International Conference on Conceptual Structures (Springer, LNAI 2120, pp. 231-244), Stanford University, California, USA, July 30 to August 3, 2001.

  32. Martin Ph. & Eklund P. (2000). Conventions for Knowledge Representation via RDF. Proceedings of WebNet 2000 (AACE, isbn:1-880094-40-1), San Antonio, Texas, November 2000.

  33. Martin Ph. (2000). Conventions and Notations for Knowledge Representation and Retrieval. Proceedings of ICCS 2000, 8th International Conference on Conceptual Structures (Springer, LNAI 1867, pp. 41-54), Darmstadt, Germany, August 14-18, 2000.

  34. Martin Ph. & Eklund P. (1999). Embedding Knowledge in Web Documents: CGs versus XML-based Metadata Languages. Proceedings of ICCS 1999, 7th International Conference on Conceptual Structures (Springer, LNAI 1640, pp. 230-246), Blacksburg, VA, USA, July 12-15, 1999.

  35. Martin Ph. & Eklund P. (1999a). WebKB and the Sisyphus-I problem. Proceedings of ICCS 1999 (Springer, LNAI 1640, pp. 315-333), Blacksburg, Virginia, USA, July 12-15, 1999.

  36. * Martin Ph. & Eklund P. (1999b). Embedding Knowledge in Web Documents. Proceedings of WWW8 (pp. 324-341), 8th International World Wide Web Conference, Toronto, Canada, May 11-14, 1999.   This article has also been published as a journal article and hence is also listed above.

  37. Eklund P. & Martin Ph. (1998). WWW Indexation and Document Navigation Using Conceptual Structures. Proceedings of ICIPS 1998, IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Processing Systems (IEEE Press, pp. 217-221) Australia, August 4-7, 1998.

  38. Martin Ph. (1997). The WebKB set of tools: a common scheme for shared WWW Annotations, shared knowledge bases and information retrieval. Proceedings of ICCS 1997, 5th International Conference on Conceptual Structures (Springer, LNAI 1257, pp. 585-588), Seattle, USA, August 4-8, 1997.

  39. Martin Ph. (1997a). CGKAT: a Knowledge Acquisition Tool and an Information Retrieval Tool Using Structured Documents and Ontologies. Proceedings of ICCS 1997 (Springer, LNAI 1257, pp. 581-584), Seattle, USA, August 4-8, 1997.

  40. * Martin Ph. & Alpay L. (1996). Conceptual Structures and Structured Documents. Proceedings of ICCS 1996, 4th International Conference on Conceptual Structures (Springer, LNAI 1115, pp. 145-159), Sydney, Australia, August 19-22, 1996.

  41. Martin Ph. (1995a). Links between Electronic Documents and a Knowledge Base of Conceptual Graphs. Supplementary proceedings of ICCS 1995, 3rd International Conference on Conceptual Structures (Springer, LNAI 954, pp. 112-125), University of California, Santa Cruz, August 14-18, 1995.

  42. * Martin Ph. (1993). A KADS refinement for Explanatory Knowledge Extraction and Modeling. Proceedings of AI 1993, 6th Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (edited by "World Scientific, Singapore"), Melbourne, Australia, November 16-19, 1993.

3.5.  Refereed French conference articles

  1. Martin Ph. (1993a). Adaptation de KADS pour la construction de Systèmes à Base de Connaissances explicatifs (in English: "Adaptation of KADS for the building of knowledge based systems"). Proceedings of JAVA 1993 ("4th Journées Acquisition, Validation et Apprentissage"), Saint-Raphaël, France, March 1993.

3.6.  Refereed international workshop articles

  1. Younes O., Jihad Z., Noël C., Mohsen K., Martin Ph.A., Eric C., Lionel B. & Regine V.L. (2024). Automatic Coral Detection with YOLO: A Deep Learning Approach for Efficient and Accurate Coral Reef Monitoring. Proceedings of ECAI 2023 International Workshops, vol 1948 (pp. 170-177; Springer, Cham.; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-50485-3_16; open-access version at https://hal.univ-reunion.fr/LIM/hal-04526271v1), AI4S 2023 (Workshop on Artificial Intelligence for Sustainability), Kraków, Poland, 30 September - 1 October 4 2023.

  2. Martin Ph. (2010b). Protocols for Governance-free Loss-less Well-organized Knowledge Sharing. Proceedings of ECAI 2010 workshop on Intelligent Engineering Techniques for Knowledge Bases (I-KBET 2010; pp. 51-56), Lisbon, Portugal, 17 August 2010.

  3. Martin Ph. (2010a). Ontology Repositories with Only One Large Shared Cooperatively-built and Evaluated Ontology. "Best paper" at the ORES (Ontology Repositories and Editors for the Semantic Web) workshop of the ESWC 2010 (Extended Semantic Web Conference), Hersonissos, Crete, 31 May 2010, published by CEUR-WS (ISSN 1613-0073, CEUR-WS.org), Vol-596 (urn:nbn:de:0074-596-3), pp. 105-116.

  4. Martin Ph. (2002a). How WebKB could contribute to PORT. Proceedings of PORT 2002, 2nd PORT workshop, first day of ICCS 2002.

  5. Eklund P., Becker P. & Martin Ph. (2001). Update Semantics for Cooperative Ontologies. Position paper (2 pages) at SWWS 2001 (Semantic Web Working Symposium), Stanford University, California, USA, July 30 - August 1, 2001.

  6. Martin Ph. & Eklund P. (1999c). A Key for Enhanced Hypertext Functionality and Virtual Documents: Knowledge. Proceedings of the Workshop "Virtual Documents, Hypertext Functionality and the Web" (technical report UBLCS-99-10, pp. 35-40) at WWW8, May 11, 1999.

  7. Martin Ph. (1995). Using the WordNet Concept Catalog and a Relation Hierarchy for Knowledge Acquisition. Proceedings of Peirce 1995, 4th International Workshop on Peirce (pp. 36-47), University of California, Santa Cruz, August 18, 1995.

  8. Martin Ph. (1995b). Knowledge Acquisition Using Documents, Conceptual Graphs and a Semantically Structured Dictionary. Proceedings of KAW 1995, 9th International Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop (pp. 1-19), Banff, Canada, February 26 - March 2, 1995.

3.7.  Refereed French workshop articles

  1. Dieng R., Labidi S., Lapalut S. & Martin Ph. (1994). Comparaison de graphes conceptuels dans le cadre de l'acquisition des connaissances à partir de multiples experts (in English: "Comparison of conceptual graphs in the context of knowledge acquisition from multiple experts"). Proceedings of GC 1994, LIRMM, Montpellier, France, March 1994.

3.8.  Thesis  (HDR, Ph.D., M.Sc.)

  1. Martin Ph. (2009c). Towards a collaboratively-built knowledge base of&for scalable knowledge sharing and retrieval. HDR thesis (240 pages; "Habilitation to Direct/supervise Research"), University of La Réunion, France, December 8, 2009.

    Summary. This thesis first explains what is a collaboratively-built&evaluated global well-organized secure Semantic Web (cgosSW), why few knowledge sharing approaches satisfy its requirements, and why it is needed to support scalable information retrieval, sharing and management processes that are both precision-oriented and completeness-oriented. Then, the main chapters of this document propose various elements of solutions (which are partly or fully implemented in the knowledge server WebKB-2, usable at www.webkb.org), for example:
    • a web-accessible/updatable multi-source large ontology/KB,
    • a top-level/core for an ontology of knowledge management/sharing (approaches, tasks, techniques, criteria for comparing tools, languages, ...) which includes a classification of the techniques that I propose:
      • a cross-referencing and regular mirroring based approach between the KBs of partially competing/complementary knowledge servers so that it does not matter which KBs are queried or updated by people (this permits to combine the advantages of distributed and centralized knowledge sharing approaches);
      • a framework for a precision-oriented collaborative evaluation of the usefulness (truthfulness, originality, ...) of each piece of information and information provider;
      • KB editing protocols that keep it free of automatically/manually detected inconsistencies - and lead people to relate their knowledge/assertions/beliefs - while not forcing these people to discuss or agree on terminology and beliefs nor requiring any selection committee;
      • lexical/structural/semantic normalization rules for knowledge representation or organization;
      • various knowledge entering/search/comparison operators and KB-generated forms that extend or complement classic operators and static forms.
    • three complementary knowledge representation notations that are more expressive, intuitive and/or concise than current common notations and whose parser(s) could be adapted to parse most current knowledge representation languages (KRLs) and allow user-specified derivations of them (to that end, an ontology of KRL structures and presentations is proposed).
  2. Martin Ph. (1996). Exploitation de graphes conceptuels et de documents structurés et hypertextes pour l'acquisition de connaissances et la recherche d'informations (in English: "Knowledge Acquisition and Information Retrieval using Conceptual Graphs and Structured Documents"). Ph.D. thesis (378 pages), University of Nice - Sophia Antipolis, France, October 14, 1996.

    Summary. Some usual tasks in designing a knowledge-based system are document information retrieval/representation (e.g., expert interview re transcriptions), document creation/manipulation (e.g., technical documentation) and knowledge retrieval/handling (e.g., for validating the knowledge base). To help the knowledge engineer perform these tasks, this report presents the techniques designed, combined and implemented in the CGKAT knowledge acquisition tool during this thesis. This tool combines (i) the advanced document structuring/handling techniques proposed by the structured document editor Thot, and (ii) the advanced knowledge representation/organization techniques enabled through the Conceptual Graph formalism. Thus, these knowledge representations can be stored, retrieved and handled with the editor Thot and CGKAT can exploit them to allow the retrieval of document parts indexed by these representations. The user may retrieve knowledge representations or document parts by navigation or conceptual requests. The results of these requests are generated virtual documents (or "views") collecting parts of documents or parts of the knowledge base which are selected on conceptual criteria. This work is likely to be re-used or replicated when XML-based Web browsers with graphic features such as those of Thot will become available (in 2009, this is not yet the case).
    This report also presents one of the first large general ontology (a generic knowledge base). It was designed during this thesis to further help the knowledge engineer perform knowledge representation/retrieval. This ontology includes common basic relation types (e.g. rhetorical, mereological, spatial, temporal and mathematical relations) as well as top-level concept types specialized by the 90,000 concept types of the terminological knowledge base WordNet. This report also shows how the exploitation of such an ontology by knowledge engineers tends to improve the coherence, the extendibility and the re-usability of their knowledge representations. This idea is now well accepted.

  3. Martin Ph. (1994). La méthodologie d'acquisition de connaissances KADS et les explications (in English: "Extension of the KADS knowledge acquisition methodology to acquire explanatory information"). M.Sc. thesis, INRIA research report RR 2179 (107 pages), January 1994.

    Summary. Knowledge acquisition (KA) methodologies - e.g., KADS - are not precise enough to guide a knowledge engineer in the acquisition of information from sources of expertise (documents, experts) in a precise enough way for the knowledge base (KB) to be self-explanatory or for the KB system (KBS) to be able to generate good explanations on its knowledge and reasoning. Thus, the KB or KBS are hard to understand and trust. To solve this problem, this M.Sc. thesis proposed to complement the KADS Conceptual Model with a "model of cooperation expertise" and a "model of communication expertise". The content of these two new models and the relationships that should occur between them were specified. A list of questions to acquire problem solving knowledge and explanatory knowledge related to each type of element of an interpretation model was also provided. To come up with this result, various knowledge acquisition and explanatory techniques used so far were synthesized. The difficulty relied in making that synthesis and instantiating it into the KADS framework. This research can however be used in other KA methodologies, traditional or recent ones.

3.9.  Documents accepted as materials for standards

  1. Raymond K., Martin Ph. & Colomb B. (2003). Ontology Definition MetaModel. OMG document ad/03-08-01 (DSTC Initial Submission to the Ontology Definition Metamodel RFP of the Object Management Group), August 18, 2003.
    The four proposals received by the OMG have been merged into:
    Colomb R., Chang D., Kendall E., Boger M., Emery P., Raymond K., Martin Ph., Ye Y., Dutra M., Frankel D., Hart L., Hayes P., McGuinness D. & Garshol L.M. (2005). Ontology Definition Metamodel. Third Revised Submission to OMG/RFP_ad/2003-03-40, August 22, 2005.

    Its Version 1.1 (2/09/2014) refers to Web-KB (www.webkb.org) as "a non-MOF-based implementation of many of the concepts represented in this specification".

  2. Martin Ph. (2004). The Multi-Source Ontology (MSO) of WebKB-2. (A summary and pointers to its content are at http://www.webkb.org/doc/MSO.html). Voted "starter material for a Standard Upper Ontology" by the IEEE P1600.1 SUO group on May 12th 2004 (http://suo.ieee.org/email/msg12552.html).

3.10.  Technical reports

  1. Martin Ph. (2009b). Analyse de la sécurité dans les systèmes RFID (in English: "Analysis of security techniques in RFID systems"). Chapter 4 (pp. 36-56) and Annex 9.5 (pp. 84-147) of the SP 1.2 confidential report ("Étude Prospective des besoins du Réseau RFID Communautaire") of the PAC-ID project for the DGCIS (ex DGE; Direction Générale de la compétitivité, de l'industrie et des services), January 2009.
    I also contributed to the other chapters of the report, especially Chapter 3. The authors of this report are: B. Pucci, P. Secondo and F. Boudinet for IBM, P. Martin, R. Molva and T. Strufe for Eurecom, P. Blanc and J. Beauxis for Carrefour, C. Fenzy-Peyre, M. Mouilleron and P. Rodier for Orange Labs.

  2. Flater D., Martin Ph. & Crane M. (2007). Rendering UML Activity Diagrams as Human-Readable Text. NISTIR report 7469, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, 2007.
    A slightly updated version of this article will be published in the proceedings of IKE 2009 and hence is also listed above.

  3. Matta N. & Martin Ph. (1998). CGKAT: The User's Reference Manual. INRIA technical report RT-0220 (116 pages), May 1998.

3.11.  Other interesting Web documents

  1. Martin Ph. (2012d). KIF functions/relations to handle lexical and semantic contextualization (beliefs, preferences, ...). http://www.webkb.org/kb/it/o_knowledge/o_KRL/o_KSmodel/d_KSmodel.html

  2. Martin Ph. (2012c). Translation in FCG of some ontologies from Ontolingua. http://www.webkb.org/kb/ontolingua/

  3. Martin Ph. (2007). Supporting Non-automatic But Scalable Knowledge Representation, Sharing and Retrieval. http://www.webkb.org/doc/slides/x/myWorks.html
    Presented to the University of Hawaii, the Hawaii Pacific University, Xerox Research Center Europe and DERI Galway.

  4. Martin Ph. (2007a). Knowledge Representation/Translation in RDF+OWL, N3, KIF, UML and the WebKB-2 languages (For-Links, Frame-CG, Formalized English). http://www.webkb.org/doc/model/comparisons.html

  5. Martin Ph. (2006). Documents related to my Griffith E-Learning Fellowship for Semester 2, 2006. http://www.webkb.org/doc/papers/GEL06/

  6. Martin Ph. (2006b). Structured discussions & Semantic classification of some resources. http://www.webkb.org/kb/it/

  7. Martin Ph. (2006c). The WebKB languages. http://www.webkb.org/doc/languages/

  8. Martin Ph. (2005). Services on the Sunshine Coast. http://www.webkb.org/SC/

  9. Martin Ph. (2004b). Discussion on recommendations to increase knowledge re-use. http://www.webkb.org/doc/conventions.html

  10. Martin Ph. (2003b). Integration of WordNet 1.7 in WebKB-2. http://www.webkb.org/doc/wn/

  11. Martin Ph. (2002b). Examples of Executable Knowledge Files. http://www.webkb.org/kb/