The CGKAT top-level concept ontology (~ 200 concept types)

The WordNet 1.5 top-level ontology for noun meanings doesn't seem complete enough and sufficiently structured for knowledge representation and knowledge acquisition. That's why we have integrated it into a situation data model, and completed it with other conceptual categories useful in knowledge representation and knowledge acquisition. We present this integration below. In this top-level ontology of about 200 types, we have (re-)organized 35 top-level WordNet categories. In the WordNet database, a word meaning is represented by a set of synonyms (the words which in some context may refer to the word meaning). Our tool, CGKAT, builds a unique type name for each word meaning by concatenating the synonyms in the set. If there is only one synomym in the set, CGKAT also adds a symbol of its grammatical category (e.g. 'n' for a noun, 'v' for a verb) and eventually a sense number. Thus, the type name is unique. In all cases, the prefix "W_" (for "WordNet") is also added to the generated type names. In the indented list below, comments are often associated to the concept types, and in this comments, examples of subtypes are often given. This allow us not to developp each branch. The '%' before a type means that it has more than one supertype. After the indented list, we give the links of exclusion between the below upper types. Concept -- the supertype of all first order concept types Entity -- something that can be involved in a situation (ex: asserting the existence of an entity is describing a situation) Collection -- a group or structure of abstract/concrete entities or situations, e.g. W_set/n2, W_group__grouping % Temporal_entity -- point or interval in time e.g. Time_period, Point_in_time, W_time/n % Spatial_entity -- an entity which occupies a space region W_space/n -- the unlimited 3 dimensional expanse in which everything is located W_location/n -- a point or extent in space Physical_entity -- a spatial entity which is made of matter (see Material_entity) W_object__inanimate_object__physical_object -- a nonliving entity W_life_form__organism__being__living_entity -- any living entity W_cell/n -- the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms Imaginary_spatial_entity -- e.g. Cartoon_Character Spatial_entity_with_special_property -- e.g. Smooth_entity, Lumpy_entity Abstract_entity -- information or representation of an information (this entity is not spatial nor temporal) Representation_entity -- Lexical_data (e.g. Integer, CG), Non_lexical_data (e.g. Image) W_representation/n1 -- a visual or tangible rendering of someone or something W_communication/n -- something that is communicated between people or groups Lexical_data -- e.g. atomic or structured abstract data types Non_lexical_data -- e.g. a figure, an image, an audio record Representation_of_a_process -- e.g. Script, History Proposition -- information (description of a situation), e.g. Description, Argument, Hypothesis, Belief, W_message__content__subject_matter__substance Property -- a dimension of an object, e.g. Mass, Volume, Form, Color, Speedness, Intelligence Measure -- a measure of a property of an object, e.g. W_measure__quantity__amount__quantum % Entity_playing_a_role -- e.g. Recipient_entity, Possessed_entity, Part_entity, Causal_entity Situation -- something that "occurs", or that is imagined, in a region of time and space (it can be described by propositions) State -- situation that is not changing and that does not make a change during a given period of time W_state/n -- the way something is with respect to its main attributes W_psychological_feature/n -- a feature of the mental life of a living organism W_relation/n -- a situation belonging to or characteristic of two entities or parts together Process -- situation that makes a change during some period of time Event -- a process that makes a change during a period of time considered as very short, e.g. W_event/n W_act__human_action__human_activity -- something that people do or cause to happen Problem_Solving_process -- a cognitive activity made by an agent for solving a problem Problem_Solving_Task -- PST (a process such as the ones modelled in knowledge acquisition), e.g. a diagnostic Problem_solving_method -- a way of executing a problem solving task or of decomposing it into subtasks Process_playing_a_role -- e.g. Method (e.g. W_method/n), SubProcess (e.g. SubTask), etc. W_phenomenon/n -- any state or process known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning % Situation_playing_a_role -- e.g. Process_playing_a_role, W_result_outcome, W_consequence__effect__outcome__result__upshot Concept_with_special_property -- e.g. Linear_dimension (e.g. Temporal_entity, Spatial_entity, Linear_ADT) Concept_playing_a_role -- a formalization of this may be found in the papers of N. Guarino % Entity_playing_a_role -- e.g. Recipient_entity, Possessed_entity, Part_entity, Causal_entity % Situation_playing_a_role -- e.g. Process_playing_a_role, W_result_outcome, W_consequence__effect__outcome__result__upshot Concept_being_a_mediation --"anything which serves as a mediating circumstance for relating other things" (Sowa,1995) Concept_used_by_an_agent -- a concept used by an agent or a group of agents (expert(s), knowledge engineer(s), etc.) Concept_used_by_a_knowledge_engineer -- e.g. Concept_used_by_a_KADS_knowledge_engineer Concept_created_by_an_agent -- may be useful when many knowledge engineers work on the same ontology Entity Excl Situation; Temporal_entity Excl Spatial_entity; Temporal_entity Excl Abstract_entity; Spatial_entity Excl Abstract_entity; Physical_entity Excl Imaginary_spatial_entity; Representation_entity Excl Proposition; Representation_entity Excl Property; Representation_entity Excl Measure; Property Excl Measure; Proposition Excl Property; Proposition Excl Measure; Process Excl State;